Bob jones university interracial dating rules
The revised policy on discrimination was formalized in Revenue Ruling 71-447, 1971-2 Cum. 230: "Both the courts and the Internal Revenue Service have long recognized that the statutory requirement of being `organized and operated exclusively for religious, charitable, . To effectuate these views, Negroes were completely excluded until 1971. 585-586 "Evidently the exemption is made in recognition of the benefit which the public derives from corporate activities of the class named, and is intended to aid them when not conducted for private gain." Trinidad v. We are bound to approach these questions with full awareness that determinations of public benefit and public policy are sensitive matters with serious implications for the institutions affected; a declaration that a given institution is not "charitable" should be made only where there can be no doubt that the activity involved is contrary to a fundamental public policy.
Holding that the IRS exceeded its powers in revoking the University's tax-exempt status and violated the University's rights under the Religion Clauses of the First Amendment, the District Court ordered the IRS to refund the taxes paid and rejected the counterclaim. The IRS determined that Goldsboro was not an organization described in 501(c)(3) and hence was required to pay federal social security and unemployment taxes.
Fn Fn Briefs of amici curiae urging reversal in No. But this mode of expounding a statute has never been adopted by any enlightened tribunal - because it is evident that in many cases it would defeat the object which the Legislature intended to accomplish. 11 The form of 170 simply makes plain what common sense and history tell us: in enacting both 170 and 501(c)(3), Congress sought to provide tax benefits to charitable organizations, to encourage the development of private institutions that serve a useful public purpose or supplement or take the place of public institutions of the same kind.
It is a well-established canon of statutory construction that a court should go beyond the literal language of a statute if reliance on that language would defeat the plain purpose of the statute: "The general words used in the clause . ., taken by themselves, and literally construed, without regard to the object in view, would seem to sanction the claim of the plaintiff. 10 In 170, Congress used the list of organizations in defining the term "charitable contributions." On its face, therefore, 170 reveals that Congress' intention was to provide tax benefits to organizations serving charitable purposes. to public charitable uses, provided the same is consistent with local laws and public policy.
Because of this admissions policy, the IRS revoked the University's tax-exempt status.
Section 501(c)(3) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1954 (IRC) provides that "[c]orporations . But in 1970, the IRS concluded that it could no longer justify allowing tax-exempt status under 501(c)(3) to private schools that practiced racial discrimination, and in 1971 issued Revenue Ruling 71-447 providing that a private school not having a racially nondiscriminatory policy as to students is not "charitable" within the common-law concepts reflected in 170 and 501(c)(3). 81-3, petitioner Bob Jones University, while permitting unmarried Negroes to enroll as students, denies admission to applicants engaged in an interracial marriage or known to advocate interracial marriage or dating. William Bentley Ball argued the cause for petitioner in No.